Thursday, December 9, 2010

BIBLIOGRAPHY Fantasilandia santiago. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.

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Geographia. (2010). Chile history and culture. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.

Insight Guide. (2009). Insight guide: chile and eastern island. Singapore: Insight Printing.

Kwintessential. Chile – language, culture, customs and etiquette. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.

Kohen, w. J & Roraff, S. (2002). Chile music and fine wine. Malaysia: Times Offset.

Lonely Planet. (2000). Chile and eastern island. Australia: Lonely Planet. (2010). Chile: land of poets. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010. (2000). Chile culture. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010. (2000). Chile tradition. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.

Roraff, S. & Camacho, L. (2001). Culture shock: a guide to customs and etiquette. Singapore: Times Media. Chile culture and customs. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010. (2008). Fantasilandia santiago de chile. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.

Silva, P. (2010). Chile. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010. (2010). Rodeo chile sport. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010. Fantasilandia. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.

Theresa, M. E. (2004). Chile 2004: a country in the making. Chile: Grafica Andes. (2009). Sports in chile. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.

Tripadvisor. (2010). Chile: rodeo – the national sport. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010. (2002). Eastern Island. Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.

Wilson, G. (November 09, 2009). Fantasilandia (Santiago de Chile). Available: Last accessed 08 December 2010.


Personally, I feel that tourism is the culprit in commodifying cultures and traditions in Chile. Cultures and traditions are losing to tourism in terms of attractions that are offered to the tourists. Tourists are seeking for holiday destination that they can indulge in another world. Fantasy world such as Disneyland and other themed parks are places where tourists would never fail to visit. Hence, with the Fantasilandia in Chile, tourist will be excited to visit compared to attending a music festivals in the same location, especially if they are travelling with families. Fantasilandia caters to all aged groups and children are often not interested in festivals as compared to theme park.

However, I do have another point of view is that tourism can be a good form of creating awareness of the local’s cultures and traditions. Some tourists travel to experience difficult cultures and traditions, these hence causing the locals to stage their cultures and traditions to the tourists. Although the performance is not authentic, it still helps to promote and create awareness of the local’s cultures and traditions so as to allow the younger generation of the locals to appreciate their cultures and traditions. These cultures and traditions will be passed down from one generation to another.

In a nutshell, tourism has been or has not been a culprit in commodifying cultures and traditions. It is depends on the individual point of view as everyone has different perception.


Economical Changes
With the development of the amusement park, it increases the tourist arrivals in Chile and tourist receipts. Hence, it has greatly improves the economy of Chile it uses to attract mainly tourist to generate more revenue for the country. This revenue will in turn to improve the standard of living in Chile and develop Chile into a more friendly country that welcomes tourists. Hence, the government will focus more on tourism development as it will generate the highest revenue in the future.

Social-Cultural Changes
When there is an influx of tourist visiting Santiago, Chile, for their theme park, Fantasilandia, it will threaten the indigenous group’s culture. Tourist would now travel to Santiago, Chile, for the theme park instead of to experience the culture of Chile.

Facilities developed for Fantasilandia has benefited residents, especially the theme park itself is a weekend hangout place to bond family. Fantasilandia targeted all age group. In the Fantasilandia, there is the kids’ zone, the attractions for the teens and also for the adults. Usually family will spend one whole day with their children at the theme park. Other facilities such as infrastructures are built to cater to the tourists as it is accessible to reach Fantasilandia. These infrastructures have benefited the residents too as they can travel easy to different destinations.

Another factor is the culture clashes due to irritation of tourist behaviour. The locals might not get used to the behaviour of the tourist such as their dressing style. Americans tourists tends to be very open such as wearing as little and light as they like, however, the locals will dress appropriately to suit the place that they are going. We the mixture of culture by two different groups, the locals might be influenced by the tourists and soon becoming more fashionable. Usually it affects the most on teenagers than the older generation people.

Environmental Changes
Cultural environment have evolved to globalised environment where tourism takes place. Lesser locals especially the younger generations tend not to practice their usual customs due to the influences of foreigners. Soon with such influences, the younger generation will grow up knowing lesser information of their own culture especially those festivals that are held in the past and are not celebrated now. Younger generation will only know the globalised environment rather than their ancestor’s culture. This is the biggest change that the growth tourism has affected Chile.


1. Theming
It is the clothing institutions or objects in a narrative that is largely unrelated to the institution or object to which it is applied, such as a casino or restaurant with a Wild West narrative. (Bryman, 2004)

In Fantasilandia, there is an enchanted castle under the category of terror attraction which is actually a haunted castle, where employees are dressed in costume and character at all times. The scene was ranging from Blair Witch, The Grudge, Saw, Friday the 13th and many more. They use the theme to attract tourists and locals to go to their amusement park where they can generate more revenue. This enchanted castle has to pay an additional fee in order for you to enter other than the entrance fee to the entire amusement park, Fantasilandia. In addition, there is the Pirates of Carribean as one of the attractions in Fantasilandia.

Enchanted Castle

Performing artists for Pirates of the Carribean

2. Hybrid Consumption
It is a general trend whereby the forms of consumption associated with different institution associated with different institutional spheres become interlocked with each other and increasingly difficult to distinguish. (Bryman, 2004)

3. Merchandising
It is the promotion and sale of goods in the form of or bearing copyright images and/or logos, including such products made under license. (Bryman, 2004)

In the Fantasilandia, there are souvenir shops where their ‘Fantasilandia’ logos are printed on all the souvenirs. The company are using the logos to attracts more tourists to buy merchandise from them as a souvenir that shows they been to Fantasilandia.

Souvenir shop

4. Performative labour
It is the growing tendency for frontline service work to be viewed as a performance, especially one in which the deliberate display of a certain mood is seen as part of the labour involved in service work. (Bryman, 2004)

In Fantasilandia, they are clowns performances under the category of magic. These employees who are employed to be a clown in Fantasilandia, they have to portray a happy and funny mood at all times to entertainment the visitors. The mood that they display might not be their real mood; however, their job scope requires them to portray a happy mood just like any other clown would be.

Performing artists


Fantasilandia is the ‘Disney’ in the modern society in Chile. Fantasilandia is a Chilean largest amusement park. The park is opened in 1978 and it is situated in a corner of the O’Higgins Park in Santiago where tourist chose to stay when in Chile. The park features a variety of rides and activities for all ages. It is a favourable hang out for family bonding while having fun together.

Fantasilandia is just like many other modern amusement parks and it has excellent security and safety precautions. The rides are all vary in different theme and all types of arts in Chile, and it has an age limit to certain ride. The park has four types roller coaster rides together with a haunted house and a toboggan ride. In Fantasilandia, there are also restaurants, facilities, and shops for people to eat and shop there.

Fantasilandia operates only on the weekends and holidays during the month of April to November, usually targeting at locals families, and then open every day during December to March to cater to the period where most tourists travel to Chile.

Fantasilania's Map


Chile is a land of poets and wine, it is known for its wine especially from the Central Valley fine Vineyard, colourful ports and its world-class ski resort. In northern Chile, it is known for its desert and coastal towns. There are some popular beaches area such as La Serena and Los Vilos. The Southern part of Chile is famous for its fjords, glaciers and forests.


The most popular and favourable sport in Chile is soccer, or ‘futbol’ (football). It is traditionally begun with English immigrants in the port city of Valparaiso. The passion for football became well-known with the 1962 World Cup held in Chile, making it the popular sport in the country. In Chile and all parts of the city, you may find boys playing soccer whenever they can. The two best teams in Chile are the University of Chile team and the Colo-Colo team which named after the Mapuche chief.

The Rodeo
In Chile, rodeo is considered a national sport since 1962. There are events held every weekend in Central and Southern part of Chile. Chilean rodeo is different from the North America rodeo. Originally, the Spanish ranchers hosted an annually event to show off their cattle-leading skills in Santiago. This event has changed into a competitive of skill and horsemanship over the years. The riders are called ‘huasos’ and they have to perform this sport while in their traditional clothes. As a result, it has become a popular spectator sport due to its colourful costumes and fine horsemanship.

Snow Skiing
Close to Santiago, the Andean mountain range and in the far southern provinces, is the two ideal locations for skiing. Chile has a total of 14 ski centres. The best period to travel is during June to September/October for skiing. The world famous ski resort is Portillo, in Chile followed by a few popular ski resorts such as the Farellones and Valle Nevado.

Wednesday, December 8, 2010


Chilean la Viqa Music Festival
Chilean la Viqa Music Festival is one of the major music festivals in Chile. It draws several spectators and performers from all across the globe. It is an international event in the country where it also provides a great opportunity for the local artist to perform in front of the global spectators. Chilean la Viqa Music Festival usually run for 5 days in Chile and it showcases the rich cultural heritage of Latin America.

Fiestas Patrias(Chile’s Independence Day)
Fiestas Patrias means patriotic parties, it is a time for all Chileans to gather together and celebrate their country, culture and independence. This celebrate is held on 18 September, Chile independence from Spain since 1810. However, Chile is only officially proclaimed its independence in 12 February 1818. There are parades, dances, drinking, eating traditional Chilean food and music during the celebration. Parades include ‘huasos’, the traditional Chilean cowboys.


Education in Chile is important to all Chileans and they are very committed to it. Their educational system is based on the French and Germans models where it is highly recognised and regarded in the Latin Americans. Education is the main priority for the lower and middle classes as they believe it can help them to improve their standards of living.

The literacy rate in Chile is 95% and is one of the highest among Latin America. Education is free and compulsory from the age of 5 to 12 which is the elementary level. However, school attendance is relatively low in some of the rural areas. Originally, universities are free and open but the funds used in education are too high and the government decided to collect school fees in all education level and at a high rate to ease the state funding. In addition, most of the students graduated as lawyers similarly to other Latin American countries and resulting in shortage of skilled people in the engineer sector and other more practical fields.

In 2003, May 7, was an historical day for Chile’s education, when a new constitutional guaranty came into force to help the government by extending compulsory free education from the age of 8 to 12 to prevent the low attendance in school. Three initiatives are launched by the Ministry of Education in the same month. They are the English-language program, a digital literacy campaign and bonus financing for state schools. Other than that, the government have signed an agreement with World Bank where both parties will contribute US$ 50 million each to scientific and technology development in Chile over a 6 years period. This will help Chile in having more skilled and trained graduates in these fields.


The office language in Chile is Spanish. However, the indigenous people have their own sets of language which is considered as their native language.

The Mapuche usually speak Mapudungun language. Also, the Aymaras in the north speak Aymara Indian language and the inhabitants of Easter Islands speak Rapa Nui, a Polynesian language. Even though these groups of indigenous people speak their native languages, they do speak Spanish too but with Chilean slang. As a result, their Spanish might be different from the Spanish in Spain.

Other than the official language and the native languages, some immigrants such as the Germans, Italians, British and Koreans speak their own languages at home and Spanish outside of their homes.

Chileans are also exposed to English language as some of the people works in international firms where they come into contacts with foreign who speaks English where the Chileans don’t. However, Chileans are very appreciative when the foreigners try to speak Spanish no matter how little knowledge of Spanish language they have. Chileans love to speak to the foreigners and they don’t mind the poor communication between the foreigners and the locals compared to no communication at all.


4.6% out of the whole population are indigenous people in Chile. There are only eight ethic groups recognised under the Law of Indigenous Peoples (Ley Indigena) of 1993. They are Mapuche, Aymara, Atacameno, Quechua, Colla, Rupanui, Alacalufe or Kawashkar, and Yamana people. Mapuches made of of 87.3% of the indigenous population, which Aymaras, Atacamenos and other groups are 7.0%, 3.0% and 2.7% respectively.

The Mapuche people are the largest group of indigenous people in Chile with a population near to half a million of people. They do speaks their Mapudungun language, and their culture are mostly characterised by familiar and religious bonds where defines them as a real nation due to these factors. The Mapuche originated largely from the Mongolian ethnic group whom arrived in America 1000BC and later, they moved away from the Andean subgroup.

The Mapuche believe in a perfect balance of both positive and negative aspects present in every act they do. The positive god, Ngenechen, represents the forces of life, creation and love where the negative god, Wekufu, god of death and destruction.

The Mapuche another word is people of the earth were used to live on
fruits found on earth and through hunting for food. They lived in scattered settlements as far out south as the Island of Chiloé. The Mapuche still continues to have a hierarchical society based on family structures. The women played an important roles in the society as they are the ones who are able to reach out to the gods and their positions is distributed according to the types of forces which they are representing. The women who communicates with the god of life is called Machi, the women who communicates with the god of death are called Kalku. Percussion instruments, wind instruments and wooden whistles are usually played to accompany their rituals.

Before the Spanish conquer, the women have a generally higher status in the family than the men. The children carried the name after the mother and the husband lives with the wife family. However after the Spanish conquer, the status have swopped. The men became the head of the family and the wife stays with the husband’s family even though the children still carries with their mother’s name. The Mapuche does not stay in a village; they spread out in families, up till today and live in a lof, a resident unit. A lof is a group of families that carried the same totem (same family’s name).

Photos of Mapuches:

The Aymaras are the second largest group of indigenous people in Chile. They speak Aymara language, an indoamerican language spoken in the Andean zone. This language belongs to the Jaqi family which is the second most spoken language in Andean area, after Quechua.

The Aymaras consider their habitat as the Andean environment where its origin to their community. They believe in only one reality but have two atmospheres that composes it: the natural environment and the supernatural environment. It is a religious vision where sanctifies nature and legitimates mans position over it.

The Aymaras are the ancient people of herders and farmers that use ancestral techniques. They depend on economic exchanges between producers from higher and lower altitudes. As the higher altitudes producer have abundant livestock but few plantation whereas those producer living in the lower altitude have plenty of plantations such as vegetables, fruits and seeds. As a result it stimulates an intensive trade between herders and farmers for their living.

The Aymara’s society is that the extended family where they inherited the male and the female line is the basic unity of traditional Aymara social organisation. The family consist of a man and his wife, their married sons, daughters-in-law and their grandsons and granddaughters, together with their single sons and daughters. There are two different types of Aymara communities: the Andean Aymara – the traditional community, and the peasant community.

Photos of Aymaras:

Bolivia Aymara Indian Festival

Clck HERE for more information of others indigenous group!


Chile has a very rich culture and is largely influenced by the European heritage from the very beginning of establishment of the country where its people are originated from. It has more than 15 millions of people in population. Majority of the Chileans, the largest group, are classified as the Mestizos – who are descended from marriage between the Spanish and the indigenous people, followed by the second largest group, the European, and smallest group, the indigenous group, mostly Mapuche. It is one of the most homogenous countries in South America.

Most Chileans are
Roman Catholics, which consisted nearly 80% and 10% of the population is Protestants. The Mapuche Indians have their own system of beliefs and the remaining populations are Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist or followers of the Baha’i faith. The religious played an important role in the social and political life. Most public schools in Chile are Roman Catholics schools. In addition, majority of the national holidays are religious in nature. Older generations of Chileans still celebrates saint’s day as much as their birthday celebrations.

Most Chileans dressed like North Americans though not as formally or informally. Generally, the Chileans only wore shorts when they are going to the beaches and nice jeans when they are out to shop. The men wear conservative suits for social and business purposes and the women wear suits and high heels for business purpose and dress for social event. However, teenagers are following the fashion trends in the United States. Traditional Chileans costume is wore by the huaso (horseman) only during festivals or rodeo, Chile’s national sport.

Traditional costume wore by Huaso

In Chilean culture, food has a very unique position. Usually Chileans take
4 meals a day: breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea and dinner.

Breakfast or desayuno, is taken around 7 in the morning. It is a light meal where bread with butter/ jam accompanied by milk/ milo for the children and café con leche/ tea for the adults. Café con leche is actually half a cup of coffee mixed with half a cup of milk, sweeten to taste with sugar.

Lunch is the biggest meal in their daily life and is usually eaten between 1pm-2pm. Traditionally, lunch consisted two main dishes. The first dish is salad and the second dish will be generally more substantial meat dish accompanied with vegetables. In the past, businesses are closed between 1-3pm as to allow people to get home for lunch with their families; however, it has changed overtime where businesses open all day in the larger cities.

Afternoon tea named ‘once’ is usually taken at around 5pm. Bread and jam, sandwiches, pastries or cakes are served during once. It is typical for families to invite friends over to share once together. Once, which means ‘eleven’ and it came from the time that the British have their tea at 11am.

Dinner known as la comida is typically served between 8.30-9.00pm. It consisted of only one main dish which is substantial and usually foreigners would find it too heavy for dinner. The dish is often accompanied with wine from the Central Valley vineyard of Chile.


Video tells it all!

Map of Chile